For a full description/interpretation see the DASS. This is simply a shorter version.

The "normal" DASS has 42 questions. In order to have comparible scores, the sum of the DASS-21 is multiplied by 2. For the score interpretation, see the DASS description.

In the original DASS-21, the abbreviation "eg" is used for "for example". In this PsyToolkit version, "for example" is used, because not everybody might now the abbreviation "eg" (which is predominantly used in academia).

Run the demo

This scale can be used as long as the website, the authors, and the papers are acknowledged.


This is a simple scale question.

The survey code for PsyToolkit

Copy and paste this code to your PsyToolkit account if you want to use the scale in your own online research project
scale: frequency
- {score=0} Never
- {score=1} Sometimes
- {score=2} Often
- {score=3} Almost always

l: dass21
t: scale frequency
o: width 60%
q: Please read each statement and indicate how much the statement applied to you
<b>over the past week</b>.<br>
There are no right or wrong answers.<br>
Do not spend too much time on any statement.<br>
The rating scale is as follows:
<li>Did not apply to me at all - NEVER
<li>Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time - SOMETIMES
<li>Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time - OFTEN
<li>Applied to me very much, or most of the time - ALMOST ALWAYS
- I found it hard to wind down
- I was aware of dryness of my mouth
- I couldn’t seem to experience any positive feeling at all
- I experienced breathing difficulty (for example, excessively rapid breathing, breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion)
- I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things
- I tended to over-react to situations
- I experienced trembling (for example, in the hands)
- I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy
- I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself
- I felt that I had nothing to look forward to
- I found myself getting agitated
- I found it difficult to relax
- I felt down-hearted and blue
- I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing
- I felt I was close to panic
- I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything
- I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person
- I felt that I was rather touchy
- I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physicalexertion (for example, sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat)
- I felt scared without any good reason
- I felt that life was meaningless

l: depression
t: set
- calc ( $dass21.3 + $dass21.5 + $dass21.10 + $dass21.13 + $dass21.16 + $dass21.17 + $dass21.21  ) * 2

l: anxiety
t: set
- calc ( $dass21.2 + $dass21.4 + $dass21.7 + $dass21.9 + $dass21.15 + $dass21.19 + $dass21.20 ) * 2

l: stress
t: set
- calc ( $dass21.1 + $dass21.6 + $dass21.8 + $dass21.11 + $dass21.12 + $dass21.14 + $dass21.18  ) * 2

l: feedback
t: info
q: Your score on the DASS-21 scale is as follows:<br>
Depression: {$depression}<br>
Anxiety: {$anxiety}<br>
Stress: {$stress}<br>
Note: Scores on each scale can run from 0 to 56.<br>
Note: Scores on the DASS and DASS-21 have the same ranges of possible scores (0-56).<br>
Write down this numbers and go back to the survey website to read what they means.


  • Official webpage

  • Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales. (2 Ed.)Sydney: Psychology Foundation.